Cystopteris (Bladder ferns)
Delicate medium sized ferns. Fronds pinnate or ternate.
Indusium hood-shaped, attached one side and arching over rounded sori.
Dryopteris (Wood Ferns)
Usually large ferns with pinnate to bipinnate fronds arising in clusters. Indusium roundish reniform (kidney shaped), attached in center, covering sori.
Gymnocarpium (Oak Ferns)
Small ferns with ternate fronds. Arising singly along slender rhizome. Sori round, indusium absent.
Small tufted ferns. Can be identified by thread- or plate-like indusium, and round sori. Indusium attached below sori and more or less arched over them.